This survey was conducted online using national consumer research panels to recruit respondents in 32 countries with a total sample size of 34,059 adults (aged 18+).
The study ran in May and June 2021 in Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK, Ukraine and the USA.
We aimed to achieve a representative sample in each of these countries, with quotas in place for gender, age, region and education levels. However, in emerging economies, particularly China and India, where online access is not as widespread across all regions, the views of lower income, less educated and rural communities are underrepresented. Data from each of the 32 countries are weighted equally.
The findings build on two previous studies conducted in 2017 and 2019. The 2017 study covered 14 markets and the 2019 study covered 30 markets in total.